The translation process not just involves the translation of one language to the other (word by word). While translating, it is the translator's job to select the right set of words to build sentences from the Source Text (The text for which translation is required) for the Target Text (The translated version of the Source Text). The beliefs, suppositions, inferences and expectations associated with words having the same meaning in another language can lead to different interpretations of the target text. Further the grammatical structural requirements of one language such as English, is largely different from the grammatical structural requirements of another language such as Arabic. Therefore the translation process requires a lot of gist and exegetic translations at different levels.
The rephrasing process via gist and exegetic translations sets the tone and connotations. Based on the extent it is exercised this can lead to different denotative meanings of Target Text and can have good as well as bad implications. When translating from Arabic to English, if the Arabic Source text consists of many semantic repetitions, a lot of gist translations are required. On the other hand exegetic translation is often exercised while translating Quran to English. Factors which have a large impact on the rephrasing process are the target audience and the purpose of a translation.
Another type of translation which favors the Source Text is Literal Translation. While translating a Source Text in English to Target Text in Arabic, using literal translation everything that can be translated from English to Arabic, might be translated on a word by word basis to Arabic, however the standard grammar and word order of Arabic is also respected. In Literal translation the denotative meaning of words is taken as if straight from the dictionary.
Intelinear translation which also is extremely biased towards Source Language, does not necessarily respect the grammatical requirements of the Target Language. However equivalent grammatical units which are closest to the Language of Source Text are used. This type of translation is often required when the structure of Source Text is of importance, such as in the case of translating traditional Arabic poetry to English.
Translation which is completely biased towards the language of Target Text is called Free Translation. Another kind of translation which favors the language of Target Text is Communicative Translation. These kind of translations are suitable for situations such as, when an expression in Source Text has an equivalent expression in Target Language, which also matches the target culture situation. The concept of Equivalence implies that there should be resemblance in relevant aspects in the everyday sense of such expressions or larger parts of such texts.
It is believed that while translating, especially during translation of two very different languages, both culturally and grammatically, such as English to Arabic translation or vice versa, the main concept which the translator should keep in mind is to minimize the differences between the Source Text and Target Text rather than to focus on achieving exact similarity between the two.
Between these two end points, having Literal Translation (which favors Source Language) on one end, and Free Translation (which favors Target Language) on the other end, there can be an endless number of variables. However to ease this discussion there is a concept of three main notional points, which is adapted from Newmark (1981:39). These three notional points are Faithful, Balanced and Idiomizing, having Literal and Free as the other ends respectively.
Contact us to get latest offers and discounts for Arabic to English or English to Arabic translation services.
Special price for bulk documents & corporate customers